Vibration therapy studies

Vibration therapy studies - results of scientific trialsof Vibration therapy for bone loss

Vibration therapy studies #1. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Jun;35(6):1033-41 Strength increase after whole-body vibration compared with resistance training. Delecluse C, Roelants M, Verschueren S. Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics Laboratory, Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Department of Kinesiology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the effect of a 12-wk period of whole-body vibration training and resistance training on human knee-extensor strength.

METHODS: Sixty-seven untrained females (21.4 +/- 1.8 yr) participated in the study. The whole-body vibration group (WBV, N = 18) and the placebo group (PL, N = 19) performed static and dynamic knee-extensor exercises on a vibration platform. The acceleration of the vibration platform was between 2.28 g and 5.09 g, whereas only 0.4 g for the PL condition. Vibration (35-40 Hz) resulted in increased EMG activity, but the EMG signal remained unchanged in the PL condition.

The resistance-training group (RES, N = 18) trained knee extensors by dynamic leg-press and leg-extension exercises (10-20 RM). All training groups exercised 3x wk-1. The control group (CO, N = 12) did not participate in any training. Pre- and postisometric, dynamic, and ballistic knee-extensor strength were measured by means of a motor-driven dynamometer. Explosive strength was determined by means of a counter-movement jump.

RESULTS: Isometric and dynamic knee-extensor strength increased significantly (P < 0.001) in both the WBV group (16.6 +/- 10.8%; 9.0 +/- 3.2%) and the RES group (14.4 +/- 5.3%; 7.0 +/- 6.2%), respectively, whereas the PL and CO group showed no significant (P > 0.05) increase. Counter-movement jump height enhanced significantly (P < 0.001) in the WBV group (7.6 +/- 4.3%) only. There was no effect of any of the interventions on maximal speed of movement, as measured by means of ballistic tests.

CONCLUSIONS: WBV, and the reflexive muscle contraction it provokes, has the potential to induce strength gain in knee extensors of previously untrained females to the same extent as resistance training at moderate intensity. It was clearly shown that strength increases after WBV training are not attributable to a placebo effect. End of abstract #1 of Vibration therapy studies.

Vibration therapy studies #2. Chin Med J (Engl). 2008 Jul 5;121(13):1155-8.Effects of vibration therapy on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Ruan XY, Jin FY, Liu YL, Peng ZL, Sun YG. Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. ruanxiangyan@163.com

BACKGROUND: Jaw osteonecrosis possibly associated with the administration of bisphosphonates is expected to be treated with a non-pharmacologic approach. This study aimed to determine whether noninvasive, mechanically mediated vibration would inhibit the decline in bone mineral density (BMD) that follows menopause, enhance the BMD of the lumbar and femoral neck, and reduce chronic back pain in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

METHODS: A total of 116 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis participated in this study, and they were divided into groups A (66 patients) and B (50). Group A received vibration treatment (Subjects vertically stand on the vibration platform, with a vibration frequency of 30 Hz, amplitude of 5 mm; they received the treatment five times per week, ten minutes each time and totally for six months), whereas women of group B served as controls without any treatment. L2 - 4 BMD, bilateral femoral neck BMD, and body mass index (BMI) were recorded before the treatment or at the third and sixth months of the treatment respectively. After the ending of the treatment, the change of BMD in each group was compared and analyzed. Chronic back pain was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline and the third and sixth months of the treatment.

RESULTS: Of the 116 women, 94 including 51 women from group A ((61.23 +/- 8.20) years) and 43 women from group B ((63.73 +/- 5.45) years), completed the study. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics including age, BMI, menopausal years, lumbar BMD, femoral neck BMD, and VAS between the two groups. The lumbar BMD of the 51 women in group A increased by 1.3% (P = 0.034) after vibration treatment for 3 months and by 4.3% at the sixth month (P = 0.000). The lumbar BMD in group B was decreased at the third month, but there was not statistical significance (P > 0.05). At the sixth month, it was decreased by 1.9% (P < 0.05). The femoral neck BMD of the 51 women in group A was slightly increased after vibration treatment for 3 months, but without statistical significance (P > 0.05). At the sixth month, the BMD was increased by 3.2% (P < 0.05). In group B, the BMD was not decreased significantly (P = 0.185) at the third month, but decreased significantly at the sixth month (1.7%) (P < 0.05) compared with the baseline.

Chronic back pain (VAS) reduced more significantly in group A at the third and the sixth months (P < 0.05) after vibration therapy in comparison with the baseline. The BMI was not significantly changed in the two groups during the period of follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS: Vibration therapy appears to be useful in reducing chronic back pain and increasing the femoral neck and lumbar BMD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. End of abstract for Vibration therapy studies #2.

Vibration therapy studies #3. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2005 Apr;17(2):157-63.Effect of whole-body vibration exercise on lumbar bone mineral density, bone turnover, and chronic back pain in post-menopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y, Uzawa M. Department of Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. jiwamoto@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exercise may enhance the effect of alendronate on bone mineral density (BMD) and reduce chronic back pain in elderly women with osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether whole-body vibration exercise would enhance the effect of alendronate on lumbar BMD and bone turnover, and reduce chronic back pain in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

METHODS: Fifty post-menopausal women with osteoporosis, 55-88 years of age, were randomly divided into two groups of 25 patients each: one taking alendronate (5 mg daily, ALN) and one taking alendronate plus exercise (ALN+EX). Exercise consisted of whole-body vibration using a Galileo machine (Novotec, Pforzheim, Germany), at an intensity of 20 Hz, frequency once a week, and duration of exercise 4 minutes. The study lasted 12 months. Lumbar BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1500W). Urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and standard laboratory techniques, respectively. Chronic back pain was evaluated by face scale score at baseline and every 6 months.

RESULTS: There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics, including age, body mass index, years since menopause, lumbar BMD, urinary NTX and serum ALP levels, or face scale score between the two groups. The increase in lumbar BMD and the reduction in urinary NTX and serum ALP levels were similar in the ALN and ALN+EX groups. However, the reduction in chronic back pain was greater in the ALN+EX group than in the ALN group.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that whole-body vibration exercise using a Galileo machine appears to be useful in reducing chronic back pain, probably by relaxing the back muscles in post-menopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate. End of Vibration therapy studies #3.

Vibration therapy studies #4. was pubished in the J Bone Miner Res. 2004 Mar;19(3):352-9. "Effect of 6-month whole body vibration training on hip density, muscle strength, and postural control in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled pilot study." by Verschueren SM, Roelants M, Delecluse C, Swinnen S, Vanderschueren D, Boonen S. from the Laboratory of Motor Control, Department of Kinesiology, Faculteit Lichamelijke Opvoeding en Kinesitherapie, Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgium.

High-frequency mechanical strain seems to stimulate bone strength in animals. In this randomized controlled trial, hip BMD was measured in postmenopausal women after a 24-week whole body vibration (WBV) training program. Vibration training significantly increased BMD of the hip. These findings suggest that WBV training might be useful in the prevention of osteoporosis.

INTRODUCTION: High-frequency mechanical strain has been shown to stimulate bone strength in different animal models. However, the effects of vibration exercise on the human skeleton have rarely been studied. Particularly in postmenopausal women-who are most at risk of developing osteoporosis-randomized controlled data on the safety and efficacy of vibration loading are lacking. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the musculoskeletal effects of high-frequency loading by means of whole body vibration (WBV) in postmenopausal women.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy volunteers (age, 58-74 years) were randomly assigned to a whole body vibration training group (WBV, n = 25), a resistance training group (RES, n = 22), or a control group (CON, n = 23). The WBV group and the RES group trained three times weekly for 24 weeks. The WBV group performed static and dynamic knee-extensor exercises on a vibration platform (35-40 Hz, 2.28-5.09g), which mechanically loaded the bone and evoked reflexive muscle contractions.

The RES group trained knee extensors by dynamic leg press and leg extension exercises, increasing from low (20 RM) to high (8 RM) resistance. The CON group did not participate in any training. Hip bone density was measured using DXA at baseline and after the 6-month intervention. Isometric and dynamic strength were measured by means of a motor-driven dynamometer. Data were analyzed by means of repeated measures ANOVA.

RESULTS: No vibration-related side effects were observed. Vibration training improved isometric and dynamic muscle strength (+15% and + 16%, respectively; p < 0.01) and also significantly increased BMD of the hip (+0.93%, p < 0.05).

No changes in hip BMD were observed in women participating in resistance training or age-matched controls (-0.60% and -0.62%, respectively; not significant). Serum markers of bone turnover did not change in any of the groups.

CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that WBV training may be a feasible and effective way to modify well-recognized risk factors for falls and fractures in older women and support the need for further human studies. End of Vibration therapy studies #4.

Vibration therapy studies #5. . J Bone Miner Res. 2004 Mar;19(3):343-51. "Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss by a low-magnitude, high-frequency mechanical stimuli: a clinical trial assessing compliance, efficacy, and safety." by Rubin C, Recker R, Cullen D, Ryaby J, McCabe J, McLeod K. at the Department of Biomedical Engineering, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York, USA

A 1-year prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial of 70 postmenopausal women demonstrated that brief periods (<20 minutes) of a low-level (0.2g, 30 Hz) vibration applied during quiet standing can effectively inhibit bone loss in the spine and femur, with efficacy increasing significantly with greater compliance, particularly in those subjects with lower body mass.

INTRODUCTION: Indicative of the anabolic potential of mechanical stimuli, animal models have demonstrated that short periods (<30 minutes) of low-magnitude vibration (<0.3g), applied at a relatively high frequency (20-90 Hz), will increase the number and width of trabeculae, as well as enhance stiffness and strength of cancellous bone. Here, a 1-year prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial in 70 women, 3-8 years past the menopause, examined the ability of such high-frequency, low-magnitude mechanical signals to inhibit bone loss in the human.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Each day, one-half of the subjects were exposed to short-duration (two 10-minute treatments/day), low-magnitude (2.0 m/s2 peak to peak), 30-Hz vertical accelerations (vibration), whereas the other half stood for the same duration on placebo devices. DXA was used to measure BMD at the spine, hip, and distal radius at baseline, and 3, 6, and 12 months. Fifty-six women completed the 1-year treatment. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The detection threshold of the study design failed to show any changes in bone density using an intention-to-treat analysis for either the placebo or treatment group. Regression analysis on the a priori study group demonstrated a significant effect of compliance on efficacy of the intervention, particularly at the lumbar spine (p = 0.004). Posthoc testing was used to assist in identifying various subgroups that may have benefited from this treatment modality. Evaluating those in the highest quartile of compliance (86% compliant), placebo subjects lost 2.13% in the femoral neck over 1 year, whereas treatment was associated with a gain of 0.04%, reflecting a 2.17% relative benefit of treatment (p = 0.06).

In the spine, the 1.6% decrease observed over 1 year in the placebo group was reduced to a 0.10% loss in the active group, indicating a 1.5% relative benefit of treatment (p = 0.09). Considering the interdependence of weight, the spine of lighter women (<65 kg), who were in the highest quartile of compliance, exhibited a relative benefit of active treatment of 3.35% greater BMD over 1 year (p = 0.009); for the mean compliance group, a 2.73% relative benefit in BMD was found (p = 0.02).

These preliminary results indicate the potential for a noninvasive, mechanically mediated intervention for osteoporosis. This non-pharmacologic approach represents a physiologically based means of inhibiting the decline in BMD that follows menopause, perhaps most effectively in the spine of lighter women who are in the greatest need of intervention. End of Vibration therapy studies #5.

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