Osteopenia glossary | Osteoporosis glossary

Osteopenia glossary | Osteoporosis glossary A - C .Terms that you will come across as you read about bone loss.

  • AAA- calcium. Active Absorbable Algel Calcium- a highly absorbable calcium preparation that research has show to increase bone density even in the elderly. This form is sold in the United States under the name Advacal
  • Absorb – to draw nutrients from the intestinal tract
  • Aldendronate – a prescription medication used to treat bone loss. It belongs to the family of drugs called bisphosphonate.
  • Alkaline phosphates – a marker found in blood that indicates activity by the cells that build bone, the Osteoblasts See: Alkaline Phosphates
  • Amenorrhea – cessation of menstrual periods, something that leads to low bone density.. Low caloric intake and excessive exercise are two things that can lead to amenorrhea.
  • Anabolic – a protein building metabolic action that makes complex substances from simple ones.
  • Anabolic steroids – synthetic hormones that produce a substance the mimicks testosterone and other male hormones.
  • Androgen – male sex hormone
  • Androstenedione – natural steroidal hormone produced in fatty tissue where it is converted into estrogen.
  • Antiestrogens – drugs and compounds that minimxe the negative effects of estrogen in certain tissue.
  • Beta estradiol – a type of estrogen used in Hormone Replacement Therapy
  • Bisphosphonates – a group of compounds used to counter bone breakdown.
  • Blood calcium – level of dissolved calcium in the blood stream.
  • Bone mineral density (BMD) measure of bone strength.
  • Bone modeling – the process of bone renewal where old bone is broken down and removed by Osteoclasts and new bone is formed by Osteoblasts.
  • Bone resorption – remove of old bone by Osteoclasts.
  • Calcitonin – hormone produced by the thyroid that helps control calcium levels by slowing bone loss. See: Calcitonin
  • Calcitriol – the active form of Vitamin D.
  • Calcium absorption – that calcium crosses from the intestines into the blood stream.
  • Calcium carbonate – a common form of calcium used in many calcium supplements.
  • Calcium citrate – a highly absorbable form of supplemental calcium.
  • Calcium gluconate – a form of calcium which is used in some supplements
  • Calcium lactate – a form of calcium found in some supplements.
  • Calcium Paradox- a theory about bone loss: a deficiency of calcium in the blood leads to calcium being deposited in soft tissue.
  • Calcium phosphate dibasic – an uncommon source of calcium in supplements.
  • Cartilage – a form of connective tissue made of collagen; non bony part of the skeleton
  • Caucasian – usually denotes being of European ancestry; comes from Caucasus area.
  • Chemical castration – a drug induced suppression of testosterone production sometimes used as a treatment for prostrate cancer.
  • Chronic inflammatory disease – persistent disease usually characterized by inflammation and sometimes causing enlargement of lymph glands.
  • Collagen – tough, fibrous protein found in the structure of bones, tendons and connective tissue.
  • Collagen cross-link – a measure of bone resorption.
  • Complementary medicine – use of both alternative and conventional medicine.
  • Conjugated estrogens – type of estrogen used in Hormone Replacement Therapy.
  • Cortical bone – hard, outer bone
  • Corticosteroid medications – drugs which stimulate natural corticosteroid hormones produced in the adrenal glands.
  • Crohn’s disease – chronic inflammation of the digestive tract.
  • Cushing’s disease – abnormally high levels of corticosteroid hormones in the blood.
  • Cystophyllum fusforme – a seaweed used in producing AAA calcium. Dairy – milk, milk products and eggs.

Osteopenia glossary | Osteoporosis glossary D - F .

  • Dehydroepiandrosterone – DHEA, a precursor of testosterone
  • Dexamethasone – corticosteroid medication.
  • DHEA – Dehydroepiandrosterone, precursor of testosterone.
  • Disphosphonates – another name for bisphosphonates.
  • Dolomite- a source of calcium.
  • Dowager’s Hump – a curve in the upper back that causes the neck and head to hang forward. See: Kyphosis.
  • Drolozifern – a drug, type of SERM.
  • Ehlers-danlos syndrome – a genetic collagen disorder that leads to bone loss.
  • Elemental calcium – pure calcium
  • Endocrine glands – glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
  • ERT – Estrogen replacement therapy
  • Estradiol - a powerful form of estrogen
  • Estrone – a type of estrogen used in Estrogen Replacement Therapy
  • Etidronate – a bisphosphonate, the first one available commercially

Osteopenia glossary | Osteoporosis gloassary G - J .

  • GNRH agonists – synthetic hormones that are like those released by the hypothalamus gland
  • Gonadotropin – hormones that stimulate activity in the gonads[ ovaries and testes]
  • Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists – GNRH agonists [see above].
  • Homoncysteinuria – a disorder of enzyme that leads to bone abnormalities etc.
  • HRT – Hormone replacement therapy.
  • HGH – human growth hormone, a powerful hormone produced by the pituitary gland.
  • Hydroxyproline – a marker for the rate of bone turnover.
  • Hypercalcemia – abnormally high calcium levels in the blood.
  • Hypogonadal osteoporosis – Osteoporosis caused by low levels of testosterone.
  • Hypoparathydroidism – under active parathyroid glands.
  • Hysterectomy – surgical removal of uterus and sometimes the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
  • Ibandronate – a bisphosphonate drug used to treat Osteoporosis.
  • Idiopahtic hypercalcinuria – abnormally high calcium levels in the urine of unknown origin.
  • Idoxifene – medication, a type of SERM
  • Impact loading exercise – exercise movement that stimulates bone growth.

Osteopenia glossary | Osteoporosis gloassary K - M .

  • Kyphosis – a hunch back, curved upper spine. SEE: Kyphosis .
  • Lactose- milk sugar.
  • Lactose intolerance – inability to digest lactose
  • Malabsorbtion – difficulty absorbing nutrients
  • Marfan’s syndrome – genetic disorder that leads to skeleton abnormalities
  • Medroxprogesterone acetate – form of progestin
  • Mesgesterol acetate – form of progestin
  • Methotrexate – an anticancer drug.
  • Milk-alkalai syndrome - high blood calcium levers due to ingesting excessive milk and calcium drugs.
  • Multiple sclerosis – a progressive nervous system disease. To read of its connection with bone loss go to: Multiple Sclerosis and Osteopenia .

Osteopenia glossary | Osteoporosis glossary N - P .

  • Norethindronte acetate – a form of progestin.
  • Norgestrel – a from of progestin.
  • Osteoblast – bone building cell
  • Osteocalcin – protein made by osteoblasts
  • Osteoclast – cells that break bone down
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta – genetic defect that leads to brittle bones
  • Osteolytic bone disease – bone tissue dissolves
  • Osteomalacia – disease of soft bones
  • Osteopenia medications: Evista
  • Osteophyte – accretions of calcium around bones, joints

Osteopenia glossary O - Z

  • Osteoporotic collapse – the fracture or collapse of a bone under normal weights
  • Osteoporoitc fractures – fractures that occur because of weakened bone
  • Paget’s disease – a disease that interferes with normal bone processing found in middle aged and older persons.
  • Parathyroid hormone – hormone from the parathyroid glad that is involved in calcium metabolism and the bone resoption cycle.
  • Peak bone mass – the time in a person’s life when s/he has the most dense bones. It usually occurs in one’s thirties.
  • PERT – progestin/estrogen replacement theraphy; sometimes called hormone replacement therapy HRT.
  • Phytoestrogens – estrogen like compound derived from certain plants.
  • Polymethyl-methylacrylate – type of cement used during percutaneous vertebroplasty.
  • Postmenopausal osteoporosis – Osteoporosis caused by the loss of estrogen after menopause.
  • Prednisone – a corticosteroid medication often associated with bone loss.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism – caused by overactive parathyroid glands.
  • Progesterone – hormone produced by ovaries. Progestin – a synthetic progesterone.
  • Prolactin – hormone produced by pituatry gland that stimulates mammary glands, produces milk.

Osteopenia glossary | Osteoporosis gloassary Q - T .

  • Raloxifene – a selective estrogen receptor modulator drug used in the treatment of Ostoeoporosis.
  • Secondary hyperparathyroidism – excessive parathyroid hormone circulating because of low levels of calcium in the blood..
  • Secondary osteoporosis – bone loss caused by some other disease that affects bone metaboloism.
  • Selective estrogen receptor modulators – SERMS, nonhormonal pharmaceutical compounds that mimic the action of estrogen. See: Evista
  • Sprue – intestinal disorder that prevents the absorption of nutrients.
  • Strontium – a mineral that has been used to increase bone density. See: Strontium
  • Tamoxafen – a SERM
  • Testosterone – androgen (male) hormone. Low levels are often associated with Osteopenia in men.
  • Trabecular – inner bone. Loss of trabecular bone can lead to fracture during ordinary daily activity such as rising from a chair.
  • Tricalcium phosphate – a calcium salt.
  • T-score – average bone mineral density of those during their peak bone mass years.
  • Tyrosine – an amino acid.

Osteopenia glossary | Osteoporosis glossary U - z .

  • Urinary calcium – calcium excreted in urine.
  • Vertebrae – individual bones of the spine.
  • Vertebral compression fracture – collapse of a vertebra. This can lead to Kyphosis or Dowagers Hump.
  • Vertebroplasty – a nonsurgical procedure to stabilize the spine after vertebral fractures. See: Vertebroplasty
  • Vitamin D – an essential vitamin for bone building and growth. See: Vitamin D
  • Vitamin K – a vitamin needed for bone building. See: vitamin K
  • Zometa – a bisphosphonate drug See: Zometa

End of Osteopenia glossary.

Sources for this Osteopenia glossary | Osteoporosis glossary :

Stephen Schettinin, The Osteoporosis Remedy. Putnams 2001.

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