Osteopenia glossary | Osteoporosis glossary
Osteopenia glossary | Osteoporosis glossary A - C .Terms that you will come across as you read about bone loss.
- AAA- calcium. Active Absorbable Algel Calcium- a highly
absorbable calcium preparation that research has show to increase bone
density even in the elderly. This form is sold in the United States
under the name Advacal
- Absorb – to draw nutrients from the intestinal tract
- Aldendronate – a prescription medication used to treat bone loss. It belongs to the family of drugs called bisphosphonate.
- Alkaline phosphates – a marker found in blood that indicates activity by the cells that build bone, the Osteoblasts See: Alkaline Phosphates
- Amenorrhea – cessation of menstrual periods, something that leads
to low bone density.. Low caloric intake and excessive exercise are
two things that can lead to amenorrhea.
- Anabolic – a protein building metabolic action that makes complex substances from simple ones.
- Anabolic steroids – synthetic hormones that produce a substance the mimicks testosterone and other male hormones.
- Androgen – male sex hormone
- Androstenedione – natural steroidal hormone produced in fatty tissue where it is converted into estrogen.
- Antiestrogens – drugs and compounds that minimxe the negative effects of estrogen in certain tissue.
- Beta estradiol – a type of estrogen used in Hormone Replacement Therapy
- Bisphosphonates – a group of compounds used to counter bone breakdown.
- Blood calcium – level of dissolved calcium in the blood stream.
- Bone mineral density (BMD) measure of bone strength.
- Bone modeling – the process of bone renewal where old bone is
broken down and removed by Osteoclasts and new bone is formed by
- Bone resorption – remove of old bone by Osteoclasts.
- Calcitonin – hormone produced by the thyroid that helps control calcium levels by slowing bone loss. See: Calcitonin
- Calcitriol – the active form of Vitamin D.
- Calcium absorption – that calcium crosses from the intestines into the blood stream.
- Calcium carbonate – a common form of calcium used in many calcium supplements.
- Calcium citrate – a highly absorbable form of supplemental calcium.
- Calcium gluconate – a form of calcium which is used in some supplements
- Calcium lactate – a form of calcium found in some supplements.
- Calcium Paradox- a theory about bone loss: a deficiency of calcium in the blood leads to calcium being deposited in soft tissue.
- Calcium phosphate dibasic – an uncommon source of calcium in supplements.
- Cartilage – a form of connective tissue made of collagen; non bony part of the skeleton
- Caucasian – usually denotes being of European ancestry; comes from Caucasus area.
- Chemical castration – a drug induced suppression of testosterone production sometimes used as a treatment for prostrate cancer.
- Chronic inflammatory disease – persistent disease usually
characterized by inflammation and sometimes causing enlargement of lymph
- Collagen – tough, fibrous protein found in the structure of bones, tendons and connective tissue.
- Collagen cross-link – a measure of bone resorption.
- Complementary medicine – use of both alternative and conventional medicine.
- Conjugated estrogens – type of estrogen used in Hormone Replacement Therapy.
- Cortical bone – hard, outer bone
- Corticosteroid medications – drugs which stimulate natural corticosteroid hormones produced in the adrenal glands.
- Crohn’s disease – chronic inflammation of the digestive tract.
- Cushing’s disease – abnormally high levels of corticosteroid hormones in the blood.
- Cystophyllum fusforme – a seaweed used in producing AAA calcium.
Dairy – milk, milk products and eggs.
Osteopenia glossary | Osteoporosis glossary D - F .
- Dehydroepiandrosterone – DHEA, a precursor of testosterone
- Dexamethasone – corticosteroid medication.
- DHEA – Dehydroepiandrosterone, precursor of testosterone.
- Disphosphonates – another name for bisphosphonates.
- Dolomite- a source of calcium.
- Dowager’s Hump – a curve in the upper back that causes the neck and head to hang forward. See: Kyphosis.
- Drolozifern – a drug, type of SERM.
- Ehlers-danlos syndrome – a genetic collagen disorder that leads to bone loss.
- Elemental calcium – pure calcium
- Endocrine glands – glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
- ERT – Estrogen replacement therapy
- Estradiol - a powerful form of estrogen
- Estrone – a type of estrogen used in Estrogen Replacement Therapy
- Etidronate – a bisphosphonate, the first one available commercially
Osteopenia glossary | Osteoporosis gloassary G - J .
- GNRH agonists – synthetic hormones that are like those released by the hypothalamus gland
- Gonadotropin – hormones that stimulate activity in the gonads[ ovaries and testes]
- Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists – GNRH agonists [see above].
- Homoncysteinuria – a disorder of enzyme that leads to bone abnormalities etc.
- HRT – Hormone replacement therapy.
- HGH – human growth hormone, a powerful hormone produced by the pituitary gland.
- Hydroxyproline – a marker for the rate of bone turnover.
- Hypercalcemia – abnormally high calcium levels in the blood.
- Hypogonadal osteoporosis – Osteoporosis caused by low levels of testosterone.
- Hypoparathydroidism – under active parathyroid glands.
- Hysterectomy – surgical removal of uterus and sometimes the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
- Ibandronate – a bisphosphonate drug used to treat Osteoporosis.
- Idiopahtic hypercalcinuria – abnormally high calcium levels in the urine of unknown origin.
- Idoxifene – medication, a type of SERM
- Impact loading exercise – exercise movement that stimulates bone growth.
Osteopenia glossary | Osteoporosis gloassary K - M .
- Kyphosis – a hunch back, curved upper spine. SEE: Kyphosis .
- Lactose- milk sugar.
- Lactose intolerance – inability to digest lactose
- Malabsorbtion – difficulty absorbing nutrients
- Marfan’s syndrome – genetic disorder that leads to skeleton abnormalities
- Medroxprogesterone acetate – form of progestin
- Mesgesterol acetate – form of progestin
- Methotrexate – an anticancer drug.
- Milk-alkalai syndrome - high blood calcium levers due to ingesting excessive milk and calcium drugs.
- Multiple sclerosis – a progressive nervous system disease. To read of its connection with bone loss go to: Multiple Sclerosis and Osteopenia .
Osteopenia glossary | Osteoporosis glossary N - P .
- Norethindronte acetate – a form of progestin.
- Norgestrel – a from of progestin.
- Osteoblast – bone building cell
- Osteocalcin – protein made by osteoblasts
- Osteoclast – cells that break bone down
- Osteogenesis imperfecta – genetic defect that leads to brittle bones
- Osteolytic bone disease – bone tissue dissolves
- Osteomalacia – disease of soft bones
- Osteopenia medications: Evista
- Osteophyte – accretions of calcium around bones, joints
Osteopenia glossary O - Z
- Osteoporotic collapse – the fracture or collapse of a bone under normal weights
- Osteoporoitc fractures – fractures that occur because of weakened bone
- Paget’s disease – a disease that interferes with normal bone processing found in middle aged and older persons.
- Parathyroid hormone – hormone from the parathyroid glad that is involved in calcium metabolism and the bone resoption cycle.
- Peak bone mass – the time in a person’s life when s/he has the most dense bones. It usually occurs in one’s thirties.
- PERT – progestin/estrogen replacement theraphy; sometimes called hormone replacement therapy HRT.
- Phytoestrogens – estrogen like compound derived from certain plants.
- Polymethyl-methylacrylate – type of cement used during percutaneous vertebroplasty.
- Postmenopausal osteoporosis – Osteoporosis caused by the loss of estrogen after menopause.
- Prednisone – a corticosteroid medication often associated with bone loss.
- Primary hyperparathyroidism – caused by overactive parathyroid glands.
- Progesterone – hormone produced by ovaries.
Progestin – a synthetic progesterone.
- Prolactin – hormone produced by pituatry gland that stimulates mammary glands, produces milk.
Osteopenia glossary | Osteoporosis gloassary Q - T .
- Raloxifene – a selective estrogen receptor modulator drug used in the treatment of Ostoeoporosis.
- Secondary hyperparathyroidism – excessive parathyroid hormone circulating because of low levels of calcium in the blood..
- Secondary osteoporosis – bone loss caused by some other disease that affects bone metaboloism.
- Selective estrogen receptor modulators – SERMS, nonhormonal pharmaceutical compounds that mimic the action of estrogen. See: Evista
- Sprue – intestinal disorder that prevents the absorption of nutrients.
- Strontium – a mineral that has been used to increase bone density. See: Strontium
- Tamoxafen – a SERM
- Testosterone – androgen (male) hormone. Low levels are often associated with Osteopenia in men.
- Trabecular – inner bone. Loss of trabecular bone can lead to
fracture during ordinary daily activity such as rising from a chair.
- Tricalcium phosphate – a calcium salt.
- T-score – average bone mineral density of those during their peak bone mass years.
- Tyrosine – an amino acid.
Osteopenia glossary | Osteoporosis glossary U - z .
- Urinary calcium – calcium excreted in urine.
- Vertebrae – individual bones of the spine.
- Vertebral compression fracture – collapse of a vertebra. This can lead to Kyphosis or Dowagers Hump.
- Vertebroplasty – a nonsurgical procedure to stabilize the spine after vertebral fractures. See: Vertebroplasty
- Vitamin D – an essential vitamin for bone building and growth. See: Vitamin D
- Vitamin K – a vitamin needed for bone building. See: vitamin K
- Zometa – a bisphosphonate drug See: Zometa
End of Osteopenia glossary.
Sources for this Osteopenia glossary | Osteoporosis glossary :
Stephen Schettinin, The Osteoporosis Remedy. Putnams 2001.
You will find this page on the Index page as Osteopenia glossary